What is education law?
Education law is the portion of the law in a state, country or city that specifically governs educational bodies such as public and private schools and universities. Various education laws cover every aspect of education and school systems.
Understanding Education Law
Education law deals with the sources of funding that school organizations use to acquire resources, as well as the requirements teachers and other faculty and staff must meet to be certified, trained, hired, retained, and fired. If there are questions about who can partake of the educational facilities, these are also answered through education law. For example, determining who is considered a resident or a non-resident of a school district or state for purposes of enrollment in an educational facility.
Education Law and Discrimination
Education law also covers discrimination in the field of education, whether in the hiring process or in the process of educating students. One example of how education law impacts individuals is the ruling that disabled individuals cannot be discriminated against in the educational process, and must be given all reasonable accommodations necessary to allow them to learn the same subjects in the same facilities as students who are not disabled. Education law handles issues involving teachers’ unions and the segregation of students. These education laws are generally followed and enforced by state and local Departments of Education.
Study in Ukraine
Rich of culture and history, with amazing architectural sites and a landscape ideal for trekking, Ukraine is a wonderful place to spend your study abroad. You will receive a real high quality education supported by that fact that Ukraine actually produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe.
Ukraine welcomes you to a country spiring of culure and gastronomic specialties. Quality higher education and postgraduate studies alongside skiing slopes, wild rivers, vast mountains and great plains of colored by golden grass. Combining your education with the adventures of a lifetime, Ukraine will give you experiences to remember for a very long time.
The Ukranian Educational System
General secondary education in Ukraine is compulsory for all children through state schools. Since 2005 secondary schools lasts for 12 years, starting at age six. By the end of secondary school all Ukranian students take IGT´s (Independent Government Tests), these are then used to apply for a higher education program or course at a university or such.
Higher Education in Ukraine
Free, state funded higher education is provided on a competitive basis as well as private non-funded higher education. The language of tuition is generally Ukrainian or Russian.
Ukrainian Universities offer both Bachelor Degree programs of 4 years and Master Degree programs of 5-6 years. These degrees are both taught and awarded in accordance with the Bologna process, in which Ukraine is taking part.
The grading scale used in Ukrainian universities reaches from 1-5, 5 meaning “excellent” and 1-2 meaning “unacceptable”, hence a failing grade. This 5-point scale is used along with a scale from 1-100 in which a students performance is rated, the latter is easily transferable to the 5-point-scale.
Postgraduate Studies in Ukraine
In entering Postgraduate studies there are two levels. The Kandidat Nauk is the first one, roughly equivalent to a Ph.D. degree, to achieve it students must pass three qualifying exams, publish at least three scientific articles and write a dissertation and defend it.
The second level is the Doctor Nauk degree achieved after studying for a further 2-4 years with good results in scientific research and publishing. The average time though between obtaining Kandidat or Doctor degrees is around 10 years and most Doctors are over 40 years of age.
In case of violation of your rights to education – contact us!
Everyone has the right to quality and affordable education. The right to education includes the right to receive education throughout life, the right to access to education, the right to free education in the cases and procedure determined by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine.
It is possible to settle a dispute regarding the realization of the right to education in a pre-trial or judicial procedure.
- Constitution of Ukraine
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- Law of Ukraine “On Education”
- Law of Ukraine “On preschool education”
- Law of Ukraine “On comprehensive general secondary education”
- Law of Ukraine “On extracurricular education”
- Law of Ukraine “On Vocational (Vocational and Technical) Education”
- Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education”
- Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 23.11.2011 No. 1392 “On approval of the State standard of basic and comprehensive general secondary education”
The right to education in Ukraine
No one can be limited in the right to receive education. The right to education is guaranteed regardless of age, sex, race, state of health, disability, citizenship, nationality, political, religious or other beliefs, skin color, place of residence, language of communication, origin, social and property status, criminal record, and as well as other circumstances and signs.
A person’s right to education can be realized by obtaining it at various levels of education, in various forms and types, including by obtaining preschool, full general secondary, extracurricular, professional (vocational-technical), professional pre-higher, higher education and adult education.
The state provides social protection for students of education in cases defined by legislation, and also ensures equal access to education for persons from socially vulnerable strata of the population.
The state creates conditions for the acquisition of education by persons with special educational needs, taking into account individual needs, opportunities, abilities and interests, and also ensures the identification and elimination of factors that prevent the realization of rights and satisfaction of the needs of such persons in the field of education.
Persons belonging to indigenous peoples, national minorities of Ukraine, are guaranteed the right to study the language of the respective indigenous people or national minority in communal institutions of general secondary education or through national cultural societies.
Persons with hearing impairment have the right to study sign language and study Ukrainian sign language.
The language of the educational process in educational institutions is the state language.
The state guarantees every citizen of Ukraine the right to receive education at all levels (preschool, general secondary, professional (vocational and technical), vocational pre-university and higher), as well as extracurricular and post-graduate education in the state language in state and communal educational institutions.
Persons belonging to national minorities of Ukraine are guaranteed the right to study in communal educational institutions for preschool and primary education, along with the state language, the language of the respective national minority. This right is realized by creating, in accordance with the legislation, separate classes (groups) with instruction in the language of the relevant national minority along with the state language and does not extend to classes (groups) with instruction in the Ukrainian language.
Persons belonging to the indigenous peoples of Ukraine are guaranteed the right to study in communal educational institutions to obtain preschool and general secondary education, along with the state language, the language of the respective indigenous people. This right is realized by creating, in accordance with the legislation, separate classes (groups) with instruction in the language of the relevant indigenous people of Ukraine along with the state language and does not extend to classes (groups) with instruction in the Ukrainian language.
Children of older preschool age (from 5 to 6 years old) must be covered by preschool education in accordance with the standard of preschool education.
Parents are responsible for their children’s pre-school education.
Complete secondary education
Complete general secondary education in Ukraine is mandatory
Complete general secondary education has three levels of education:
five-year basic secondary education;
professional secondary education lasting three years.
Extracurricular education is one of the types of education, thanks to which students and young people have the opportunity to develop their abilities in various fields: science, sports, culture, technical and other creativity.
Financing of extracurricular education is carried out at the expense of the founder, state and/or local budgets, parents, and other sources not prohibited by law.
Vocational (vocational and technical) education is obtained on the basis of basic or full general secondary education. Obtaining professional (vocational and technical) education on the basis of basic secondary education is carried out with the simultaneous acquisition of specialized secondary education and obtaining the corresponding document on complete general secondary education.
Vocational education forms the professional competence of a person, which is necessary for professional activity in a certain profession in the relevant field, and provides an opportunity to be competitive and have career growth prospects throughout life.
Vocational pre-higher education – obtained on the basis of full or basic secondary education, carried out with the simultaneous acquisition of full general secondary education and obtaining the corresponding document on full general secondary education. This type of education provides an opportunity to obtain an educational qualification that confirms a person’s ability to perform typical specialized tasks in a certain field of professional activity, related to the performance of production tasks of increased complexity and/or the implementation of limited management functions.
Institutions of professional preliminary higher education may form educational-methodical, educational, scientific-industrial and other associations based on branch or professional characteristics. A person who has obtained a degree of professional preliminary education can continue his studies at the levels of higher education, including under a shortened training program.
Higher education is obtained on the basis of complete general secondary education. The purpose of higher education is the acquisition by a person of a high level of scientific and/or creative artistic, professional and general competences necessary for activities in a certain specialty or in a certain field of knowledge.
The levels, degrees of higher education, order, conditions, forms and features of its acquisition are determined by a special law.
Adult education can be implemented during life.
Every adult has the right to continuous education, taking into account his personal needs, social development priorities and the needs of the economy.
The components of adult education are:
- postgraduate education;
- professional training of employees;
- retraining and/or professional development courses;
- continuous professional development;
– any other components provided by legislation, proposed by the subject of educational activity or independently determined by the person.
Rights of education seekers
Education seekers have the right to:
- lifelong learning and academic mobility;
- an individual educational trajectory, which is implemented, in particular, through a free choice of types, forms and pace of obtaining education, educational institutions and the educational programs offered by them, educational disciplines and their level of complexity, methods and means of education;
- quality educational services;
- fair and objective assessment of learning outcomes;
- celebration of successes in one’s activity;
- freedom of creative, sports, recreational, cultural, educational, scientific and scientific and technical activities, etc.;
- safe and harmless conditions of study, maintenance and work;
- respect for human dignity;
- protection during the educational process from humiliation of honor and dignity, any form of violence and exploitation, bullying (harassment), discrimination on any grounds, propaganda and agitation that harm the health of the student of education;
- receiving social and psychological-pedagogical services as a person who suffered from bullying (harassment), witnessed it or committed bullying (harassment);
- use of the library, educational, scientific, industrial, cultural, sports, household, health infrastructure of the educational institution and the services of its structural subdivisions in the order established by the educational institution in accordance with special laws;
- access to information resources and communications used in the educational process and scientific activity;
- provision of scholarships in accordance with the procedure established by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine;
- labor activity in extracurricular time;
- preservation of a place of study for the period of military service under conscription and/or during mobilization, for a special period;
- personal or through their legal representatives participation in public self-government and management of an educational institution;
- other necessary conditions for obtaining an education, including for persons with special educational needs and from socially vulnerable strata of the population.
Obligations of education seekers:
- fulfill the requirements of the educational program (individual curriculum, if available), adhering to the principle of academic integrity, and achieve the learning outcomes provided for by the education standard for the relevant level of education;
- respect the dignity, rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of all participants in the educational process, adhere to ethical standards;
- to treat one’s own health, the health of others, and the environment responsibly and carefully;
- comply with the founding documents, the internal rules of the educational institution, as well as the terms of the agreement on the provision of educational services (if it exists);
– to inform the management of the educational institution about the facts of bullying (harassment) in relation to students of education, pedagogic, scientific-pedagogical, scientific workers, other persons who are involved in the educational process, which they personally witnessed or about which they received reliable information from other persons.
– students of education also have other rights and obligations stipulated by legislation and founding documents of the educational institution.
Responsibility for violation of the right to education
Article 183 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine states:
– illegal refusal of admission to an educational institution of any form of ownership – shall be punished by a fine of up to one thousand tax-free minimum incomes of citizens with deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or engage in certain activities for a period of up to three years.
– illegal demand for payment for education in state or communal educational institutions – shall be punished by a fine of up to one thousand tax-free minimum incomes of citizens or restriction of freedom for a term of up to three years, or deprivation of liberty for the same term, with deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term of up to three years.
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